Research on Diaper Need

This section features scholarly journal articles, reports and other publications examining the association between diaper need and social, health and economic outcomes.  If you would like to have a resource added to any of these sections, e-mail

Diaper Need

Better Health for Children and Increased Opportunities for Families: The Social and Economic Impacts of The Diaper Bank of Connecticut (2018)

The Diaper Bank Concept – Contemporary Pediatrics (2016)

Article addresses diaper need as a “malady” of early childhood poverty and the impact a lack of diapers has on the child as well of the family.

Huggies Every Little Bottom Study: diaper need in the U.S. and Canada (2010)

The study provides evidence of ways that many families are struggling to make ends meet and provide their infant or young child with a clean diaper.

In Short Supply:  Feeding America Executive Summary – Feeding America (2012)

Research project, commissioned by Feeding America and supported by a research grant from Procter & Gamble, the Family Resilience Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, found that critical non-food items that many American families struggle to afford basic non-food items, such as hygiene products and disposable diapers.

What Women Seek from a Pregnancy Resource Center – Contraception (2016)

The study looks at 29 states that allow taxpayer funding to go to pregnancy resource centers (PRC), concluding that PRC clients largely sought parenting, not pregnancy, resources.

Constance A. Hull and Caroline Kelsey, “Helping the Community from the Bottom Up: Distributing Diapers to the Williamsburg Community.” VA Engage Journal (2014).

This paper discusses the need for a sustainable supply of clean diapers for low-income families and a diaper bank model that mails diapers directly to families experiencing diaper need.

Federal Programs

TANF and the First Year of Life: Making a Difference at a Pivotal Moment – CLASP (2015)

TANF and the First Year of Life: Making a Difference at a Pivotal Moment – Presentation Slides

This paper explores what could be done under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant to use policy to support parents and children during pregnancy and first year of life.


Emergency Response: A Systemic Approach to Diaper Rash, Chest Pain, and Medicaid in ED – Kentucky Law Journal (2014)

This article discusses non-emergent emergency department use, diaper rash among  the medical conditions, and options for the health care systems approach to managing these visits.

Healthy Young Children: A Manual for Programs, 4th ed.  – NAEYC (2002)

Child care is affected by many technical health and safety issues. Even the most conscientious child care professional cannot be fully informed about all health matters that affect the program, the staff, the children, and their families. This article discusses the Caring for Our Children guidelines for selecting an effective child care health consultant for your program.

Diaper need and its Impact on Child Health – Pediatrics  (2013).

This study quantifies diaper need, proposes a method to measure diaper need, and explores psychosocial and demographic variables associated with diaper need in a large sample of low income families.

Diaper Need: A Change for Better Health – Pediatric Nursing (2015)

This article discusses the diaper gap and impact pediatric nurses can have in bridging the diaper gap.

Prevention of Skin Breakdown in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit – University of South Carolina (2005)

This dissertation discusses the prevention of skin breakdown in the pediatric intensive care unit, and includes the condition of diaper dermatitis.

Incentive-Based Diaper Provision

Effects of Incentive-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Pregnant Women on Birth Outcomes – Maternal and Child Health Journal (2017)

This study provides the first evidence that successful participation in a unique statewide incentive-based smoking cessation program tailored to
pregnant women, the Baby & Me-Tobacco Free program, was associated with improved birth outcomes.


The Aging Population and Incontinence Fact Sheet – Medline (2011)

A look at the current state of older adult residents based on the Area Plan on Aging Community Needs Assessment.

Aging in Pima County, A Report to the Community –  Pima Council on Aging (2013)

This report presents the national estimates of incontinence prevalence in the United States using data source-specific definitions of incontinence among persons aged 65 and over by sociodemographic characteristics during 2007-2010.

Prevalence of incontinence among older Americans – National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat (2014)

This report presents national estimates of incontinence in the United States using data source-specific definitions of incontinence among persons aged 65 and over by sociodemographic characteristics during 2007-2010.

Urinary Incontinence in the Older Adult – PSAP – Special Populations (2013)

Urinary incontinence has a large economic and functional impact and will become an even larger issues in the health care system as the population continues to age.


Kelley E.C. Messengale, Jennifer Toller Erausquin, Michelle Old, “Organizational and health promotion benefits of diaper bank and community-based organization partnerships.” Children and Youth Services Review (2017), 112-117.

This paper’s key findings demonstrate the provision of diaper bank diapers allowed community based organizations to assist families in meeting a basic need while making a positive impact on both the organization and client.

Kelly E.C. Massengale et al. “Health, Social, and Economic Outcomes Experienced by Families as a Result of Receiving Assistance from a Community-Based Diaper Bank.” Maternal and Child Health Journal (2017): 1-10.

This paper aims to describe low-income recipients of a community-based diaper program and the multiple daily challenges they face and documents the health, social,and financial outcomes recipients experienced after receiving assistance.


Policy Impact of Research Findings on the Association of Diaper Need and Mental Health – Women’s Health Issues, Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health (October 2017)

This article is based on the policy activities that occurred from 2013 to 2016 after Pediatrics published the diaper need findings, several diaper-related policy activities were identified at the city, state, and federal level.



Jack P. ShonkoffAndrew S. GarnerThe Committee On Psychosocial Aspects Of Child And Family Health, Committee On Early Childhood, Adoption, And Dependent Care, And Section On Developmental And Behavioral Pediatrics, The Lifelong Effects of Early Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress
This article discusses the need for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health.

Toilet Training

Timothy R. Schum, Thomas M. Kolb, Timothy L. McAuliffe, Mark D. Simms, Richard L. Underhill and Marla Lewis, Sequential Acquisition of Toilet-Training Skills: A Descriptive Study of Gender and Age Differences in Normal Children, Pediatrics 2002;109;e48 DOI: 10.1542/peds.109.3.e48

To compare the ages, by gender, at which normally developing children acquire individual toilet-training skills and to describe the typical sequence by which children achieve complete toileting  success.